Research
Blockchains
Author: Zainab Hasan
| Dec 19, 2022
IBC provides a standard for data structures, semantics, protocol, and framework that enables every blockchain implementing IBC to authenticate and transport data among them in a permissionless manner, providing interoperability.
Cryptography
Author: Maham Imtiaz
| Nov 28, 2022
In our previous article, we briefly discussed the formation of the Merkle Tree using the Reed Solomon Code. In this […]
Blockchains
Author: Zainab Hasan
| Nov 11, 2022
The Internet is a network of independent computers connecting to share data (whether to read, write, store, or all). Similarly, connects separate blockchains. As the internet uses HTTP protocol, Cosmos uses IBC protocol.
Cryptography
Author: Rabia Fatima
| Nov 11, 2022
Ever wondered how satellite communication works when there is so much noise in the environment? Or how can we still […]
Author: Rabia Fatima
| Oct 26, 2022
In recent times, we on twitter are witnessing a frequent discussion about the Data Availability Problem and its importance. There […]
Rollups
Author: Zainab Hasan
| Oct 21, 2022
This article explores the different types of rollups i.e. Sovereign, enshrined, Smart Contract and settlement Rollups. Click to read more
Rollups
Author: Zainab Hasan
| Oct 05, 2022
Optimism is an EVM compatible rollup, which has an upgrading coming out in Q4 of 2022 named Optimism bedrock. Read more in this publication.
Ethereum
Author: Rabia Fatima
| Sep 09, 2022
TL;DR: In this article, we are gonna discuss what resource pricing in blockchain means and how we can limit and […]
Zero-Knowledge
Author: Rabia Fatima
| May 25, 2022
ZK-SNARKs are mostly popular for publicly verifiable computations. They rely on common reference strings (CRS) for proving and verifying. Subversion […]
CryptographyZero-Knowledge
Author: Rabia Fatima
| Apr 23, 2022
Special thanks to Shakeib Shaida and Zainab Hasan for reviewing my article. Zero-knowledge proofs are cryptographically advanced proofs which are […]
Blockchains
Author: Zainab Hasan
| Apr 08, 2022
Celestia is a Modular Blockchain which separates data availability layer from execution and settlement layers. Click to learn more about Celestia.
Zero-Knowledge
Author: Shakeib Shaida
| Mar 22, 2022
Introduction Learning zero knowledge can feel like an impossible task, especially for people who have very little exposure to cryptography […]
CryptographyZero-Knowledge
Author: Zainab Hasan
| Mar 16, 2022
STARKs revolves around the idea of computational integrity, which essentially means that the output of a specific computation is correct. […]
MEV
Author: Abdul Qadir
| Mar 09, 2022
Extracting MEV incurs externalities, like increasing the congestion of the network and gas wars which eventually increase gas costs for […]
CryptographyZero-Knowledge
Author: Rabia Fatima
| Feb 28, 2022
Currently at Xord we are researching ZK-SNARKs in depth.  Although Maksym Petkus does an excellent job of explaining why and […]
CryptographyZero-Knowledge
Author: Maham Imtiaz
| Feb 12, 2022
Introduction In my previous research we discussed about Lattice-based cryptography and now we will use lattice cryptography to built our […]
Ethereum
Author: Ammar Lakho
| Feb 05, 2022
Introduction So what exactly is Lodestar? As the name implies, it is the star that guides our path towards a […]
Cryptography
Author: Maham Imtiaz
| Feb 02, 2022
Introduction: Encryption programs are genuinely designed to destroy the relation between plain text and the corresponding ciphertext. A good encryption […]
Ethereum
Author: Abdul Sami Jawed
| Jan 24, 2022
Introduction I want to share our roller-coaster ride to open-source contribution in Ethereum, which started with exploring the Ethereum client […]
Zero-Knowledge
Author: Rabia Fatima
| Jan 15, 2022
This article is greatly inspired by Vitalik explanation on Quadratic arithmetic programs(QAPs). In this article we are going to take a […]
CryptographyZero-Knowledge
Author: Maham Imtiaz
| Jan 05, 2022
Introduction: For the last few years, quantum computers have been in the news and mathematicians and cryptographers are concerned with […]
DeFiEthereum
Author: Maham Imtiaz
| Dec 23, 2021
Introduction: Curve DAO token (CRV) is an Ethereum token that is powered by Curve finance. Which can be stated as […]
Zero-Knowledge
Author: Zainab Hasan
| Dec 15, 2021
Introduction Over the years, banks became quite a crucial part of the lifestyle. They provide the best user experience possible. […]
EthereumMEV
Author: Rabia Ahmed
| Dec 10, 2021
What is MEV? The term MEV was initially proposed by Phil Daian in "Flash Boys 2.0," and it has since […]
CryptographyEthereum
Author: Rabia Fatima
| Dec 09, 2021
This is the last post of our series on stateless Ethereum. Earlier, in the previous articles we have discussed the […]
Ethereum
Author: Rabia Fatima
| Dec 01, 2021
Our previous article was a depiction of how polynomial commitments can create a disruptive path in building stateless clients in […]
CryptographyEthereum
Author: Rabia Fatima
| Nov 11, 2021
In our previous article we have described what stateless clients are, why they are important and how we can achieve […]
Ethereum
Author: Novon
| Nov 05, 2021
Introduction As discussed in the previous article, Novon is contributing to the blockchain world in the form of research and […]

We research blockchain core and infrastructure while developing products for the Web3 ecosystem in addition to providing blockchain development services, audit & tokenomics, along with design in the Web3 space.

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