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IBC: Sending & Receiving Data Packages

IBC provides a standard for data structures, semantics, protocol, and framework that enables every blockchain implementing IBC to authenticate and transport data among them in a permissionless manner, providing interoperability.

2D Reed Solomon Encoded Merkle Tree Construction

In our previous article, we briefly discussed the formation of the Merkle Tree using the Reed Solomon Code. In this […]

Cosmos: An Architectural Guide

The Internet is a network of independent computers connecting to share data (whether to read, write, store, or all). Similarly, connects separate blockchains. As the internet uses HTTP protocol, Cosmos uses IBC protocol.

Reed Solomon Codes: A Classical Explanation

Ever wondered how satellite communication works when there is so much noise in the environment? Or how can we still […]


Fraud and Data Availability Proofs

In recent times, we on twitter are witnessing a frequent discussion about the Data Availability Problem and its importance. There […]

Rollups 101: The Classification

This article explores the different types of rollups i.e. Sovereign, enshrined, Smart Contract and settlement Rollups. Click to read more

Optimism Bedrock: An Early Guide

Optimism is an EVM compatible rollup, which has an upgrading coming out in Q4 of 2022 named Optimism bedrock. Read more in this publication.

Why is Resource Pricing a Big Deal in Blockchain?

TL;DR: In this article, we are gonna discuss what resource pricing in blockchain means and how we can limit and […]

Multi-Party Computation Protocol for Universal SNARKs

ZK-SNARKs are mostly popular for publicly verifiable computations. They rely on common reference strings (CRS) for proving and verifying. Subversion […]

The Trusted Setup of ZK-SNARK

Special thanks to Shakeib Shaida and Zainab Hasan for reviewing my article. Zero-knowledge proofs are cryptographically advanced proofs which are […]

Celestia: Turning Modularity Into Reality

Celestia is a Modular Blockchain which separates data availability layer from execution and settlement layers. Click to learn more about Celestia.

Painting Mental Picture of Zero-Knowledge

Introduction Learning zero knowledge can feel like an impossible task, especially for people who have very little exposure to cryptography […]

The Advent Of STARKs With IOPs

STARKs revolves around the idea of computational integrity, which essentially means that the output of a specific computation is correct. […]

Flashbots: MEV Pi-Rate Ship

Extracting MEV incurs externalities, like increasing the congestion of the network and gas wars which eventually increase gas costs for […]

ZK-SNARKs: The Low Level Working

Currently at Xord we are researching ZK-SNARKs in depth.  Although Maksym Petkus does an excellent job of explaining why and […]

Lattice-Based Cryptography: Zero Knowledge

Introduction In my previous research we discussed about Lattice-based cryptography and now we will use lattice cryptography to built our […]

Lodestar Setup Tutorial

Introduction So what exactly is Lodestar? As the name implies, it is the star that guides our path towards a […]

Strong Homomorphic Encryption

Introduction: Encryption programs are genuinely designed to destroy the relation between plain text and the corresponding ciphertext. A good encryption […]

A Roller-Coaster Ride to Open-Source Contribution in Ethereum 2.0

Introduction I want to share our roller-coaster ride to open-source contribution in Ethereum, which started with exploring the Ethereum client […]

Explaining Quadratic Arithmetic Programs

This article is greatly inspired by Vitalik explanation on Quadratic arithmetic programs(QAPs). In this article we are going to take a […]

Lattice Based Cryptography: A Post Quantum Era

Introduction: For the last few years, quantum computers have been in the news and mathematicians and cryptographers are concerned with […]

Curve DAO: A Brief Outlook To The Mechanism Of DAO

Introduction: Curve DAO token (CRV) is an Ethereum token that is powered by Curve finance. Which can be stated as […]

Zero-Knowledge Proofs: A General Understanding

Introduction Over the years, banks became quite a crucial part of the lifestyle. They provide the best user experience possible. […]

MEV: Explain Like I Am Five

What is MEV? The term MEV was initially proposed by Phil Daian in "Flash Boys 2.0," and it has since […]

Verkle Trees: A Step towards Stateless Ethereum

This is the last post of our series on stateless Ethereum. Earlier, in the previous articles we have discussed the […]

Kate Commitments: A Polynomial Scheme

Our previous article was a depiction of how polynomial commitments can create a disruptive path in building stateless clients in […]

Polynomial Commitments For Stateless Clients

In our previous article we have described what stateless clients are, why they are important and how we can achieve […]

Wei to the Future

Introduction As discussed in the previous article, Novon is contributing to the blockchain world in the form of research and […]

We develop cutting-edge products for the Web3 ecosystem supported by our extensive research on blockchain core and infrastructure.

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